Bruce began his scientific career as a cell biologist. He received his Ph.D. degree from the University of Virginia before joining the Department of Anatomy at the University of Wisconsin’s School of Medicine in 1973. Dr. Lipton’s research on muscular dystrophy, studies employing cloned human stem cells, focused upon the molecular mechanisms controlling cell behavior. His research at Stanford University’s School of Medicine, between 1987 and 1992, revealed that the environment, operating through the membrane, controlled the behavior and physiology of the cell, turning genes on and off. His discoveries, which ran counter to the established scientific view that life is controlled by the genes, presaged one of today’s most important fields of study, the scientific of epigenetic. His book, Biology of Belief, has been an inspiration to the many thousands who have read it. Biology of Transformation: Suppose Darwin and the DNA model have missed something vital.